- Meat and Poultry
- Fish and Shellfish
- Cream and Cream Products
- Eggs and Egg Whites
- Ice Cream
- Dairy Spreads
- Fruit, Fruit Products
- Sauces, Dressing, and Dips
- Condiments, Herbs & Spices, Spreads
- Ingredients for Cooking
- Prepared Foods
- Bakery Goods and Sweets
- Grains, Pasta, and Cereal
- FAQs on Bacteria
- What are bacteria?
- How can I avoid getting sick from a bacterial illness?
- How dangerous is a staph infection?
- Can I assume that if food smells bad its unsafe to eat and if it smells ok that it is safe to eat?
- How dangerous is botulism?
- How dangerous is listeria?
- How many types of bacteria are there?
- What foods are likely to be contaminated by listeria?
- What foods can give a person a staph infection?
- What foods can give a person botulism?
- Why do some bacteria make people sick?
- Why does refrigeration keep bacteria from multiplying?
- Can I avoid all contact with bacteria if I’m careful?
- How Many Bacteria Does It Take to Cause Illness?
- FAQs on Cookware
- Are Ceramic and Enamel Cookware Safe and Practical?
- Are Nonstick Coatings on Cookware a Health Risk?
- Do Cast Iron, Glass, Copper, and Titanium Cookware Have Any Disadvantages?
- Does Using Aluminum Cookware Increase the Chances of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease?
- Is Stainless Steel Cookware a Good Choice?
- Is the New Silicone Rubberized Cookware Safe?
- Nonstick Cookware: Is it Dangerous?
- What Brands of Cookware are Recommended by Experts?
- What Features Should I Look for When Selecting Cookware?
- What Should I Know about Selecting and Using Aluminum Cookware?
- FAQs about Definitions
- Exactly what is meant by the phrase perishable food?
- Defining Some Current Language about Food
- What Does the Word “Foodie” Mean? It Depends Who(m) You Ask
- What do “sell by,” “best by/before,” “use by” and “expiration” mean?
- What does the term shelf life mean?
- What's in Our Food? Maybe Processing Aids, Maybe not
- “Fresh,” “Natural,” “Processed”—What Do These Words Mean?
- FAQs on Dropped Food
- FAQs on Farmers' Markets
- Exactly what defines a farmers’ market?
- Farmers' Markets: Why They're So Popular; How to Find One Near Your Home
- How should I handle produce at home?
- What foods are sold with restrictions at a farmers’ market?
- What should I bring to the farmers’ market?
- What shouldn’t I do or eat at a farmers’ market?
- What signs indicate a sanitary farmers’ market?
- What time of day is it best to go to a farmers’ market?
- FAQs on Food-borne Illness and Mishandling of Food
- About how many cases of food-borne illness occur in the U.S. each year?
- Answer Key to “How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?”
- How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?
- I Left It Out Too Long! Can I Still Eat It?
- Should Your Grocery Card Track Food-Borne Illnesses?
- Sudden, Awful Intestinal Distress--Is it the Flu or a Foodborne Illness--or Both?
- What YOU Can Do to Avoid Food-borne Illness
- What does the phrase food-borne illness refer to?
- FAQs on Food Product Dating
- Are stores required, by law, to remove outdated items from their shelves?
- Do most consumers actually pay attention to the dating on foods?
- Does the “use by” date matter once the product is frozen?
- Is information on food longevity and safety available by phone?
- What are expiration dates?
- What do the terms closed dating and open dating mean?
- What if there is no date on a product, and I don’t remember if I bought it a month ago or ten years ago?
- What should consumers know about food product dating?
- When Did You Buy It? When Did You Open It?
- Who establishes these product dates?
- Who requires and regulates dating on foods?
- Why do “best by” and “use by” dates sometimes seem conservative?
- FAQs on Food Safety
- "Is It Safe To….?" FAQs Answered by our Advisory Board
- FAQs about Ground Beef, Seasonings, Olive Oil, Lemon Wedges, and Fish
- FAQs about Mushrooms: Are they Very Dirty or Very Clean?
- FAQs about Soft Cheeses--What's Safe, What Isn't
- FAQs on Food Safety and Nutrition
- FAQs on Raw Fruits and Veggies—the Answers Can Protect Your Wallet and Your Health
- Food/Meat Thermometers—What You Need to Know
- How Long Should Cheese Be Aged? Will the Rules Be Changed?
- How Long Will They REALLY Last? Part I: Non-perishables
- How Long Will They REALLY last? Part II: Perishables
- Imported Foods—What’s Safe, What’s Risky?
- Is It Safe? Is It Nutritious? More Survey Answers from Scientists
- Is It Time to Switch to Pasteurized Eggs?
- Is the Food Safety Modernization Act Making Our Food Supply Safer?
- More FAQs about Minimum Safe Cooking Temperatures: Pork and Other Perishables
- Sushi: Why Such a Short Shelf Life?
- Winter Food Storage—Can I leave It in the Car or in the Garage?
- Would You—Should You—Do You--Eat Irradiated Food?
- FAQs on Food Wrapping
- Are any plastic wraps or containers really “microwave safe”?
- Are some plastic wraps more effective than others?
- Can I refrigerate meat and poultry in its store wrapping?
- Can I use plastic freezer bags to store produce in the fridge?
- Can chemicals leach unto food from plastic wrap or containers?
- Do coated plastic bags really help produce last longer?
- Does aluminum foil give foods a metallic taste?
- Does exposure to aluminum cause Alzheimer’s disease?
- Everything You Need to Know about Wrapping Food Right
- How should fruits be wrapped before refrigeration?
- Is it safe to use aluminum foil in a microwave oven?
- Should I wrap raw vegetables loosely or tightly before refrigerating?
- What are some advantages and disadvantages of aluminum foil?
- What produce needs to be wrapped before refrigerating?
- What’s better for wrapping food—plastic or aluminum foil?
- Why does foil sometimes darken, discolor, and leave black specks on food?
- Will a foil cover help keep foods on the table hot or cold?
- FAQs on Freezing Food
- FAQs on Leftovers
- FAQs on Mold
- What is mold?
- Does mold ever grow on nonperishable food?
- Can I remove a moldy part from food and eat the rest?
- About how many different kinds of molds are there?
- How can I avoid getting mold on my refrigerated food?
- Is mold always visible?
- Are any molds harmless?
- What food groups are most susceptible to mold?
- What kinds of illnesses can result from eating moldy food?
- What kind of packaging protects foods from mold?
- What other safety tips will help prevent mold from growing?
- Why are some molds dangerous?
- FAQs on Organic Food
- What Is Organic Food?
- Are Organic Methods More Humane to Animals?
- Does Conventional Food Have a Longer Shelf Life Than Organic?
- Does Organic Food Taste Better than Conventional Food?
- Is Organic Food More Nutritious Than Conventional Food?
- Is Organically Grown Food Better for the Environment?
- What Do the Various Organic Labels Mean?
- What Important Contributions Has the Organic Movement Made?
- Which Are Safer: Organic or Conventional Food Products?
- Will Organic Baby Food Make Baby Healthier?
- FAQs on Oxidation: How It Affects Foods
- FAQs about Plastic Products Used with Food
- Pyrex® Glassware: Is it safe to use?
- Are plastic bags safe to use in the microwave?
- Are some plastic wraps safer and/or more effective than others?
- Are there any health risks from reusing plastic water bottles by refilling them with tap water?
- Are we eating chemicals from plastics along with our food?
- Can I microwave food in my plastic containers?
- Does the plastic used in water bottles pose a health risk?
- If I heat food in an open can, will that cause the plastic lining to leach chemicals into the food?
- Is it safe to heat frozen entrées in their plastic containers and with their plastic wrap?
- Is it safe to use plastic wrap as a covering when microwaving food?
- Is it safe to wash and dry plastic plates, cups, containers, and utensils in the dishwasher?
- Is there good evidence that BPA is harmful to human health?
- Of the plastic products used to store, heat, or eat with (wraps, bags, containers, silverware, plates, etc.), which contain BPA?
- What is BPA?
- Why is so much of today’s food packaged in plastic?
- FAQs on Preservatives
- What are Preservatives?
- All things considered, is our food supply safer or less safe because of preservatives?
- Are the preservatives in hot dogs and similar products health risks?
- What preservatives are known to cause allergic reactions?
- What are some common preservatives used in food?
- What food groups commonly have preservatives in them?
- Why are preservatives added to food?
- Will the label on the product tell me if it contains a preservative?
- FAQs on Washing Produce: Why and How
- Other FAQs
- Can chicken soup really cure a cold?
- Is Chocolate Good For You?
- Can Science and Technology Help You Save Food Dollars?
- FAQs Answered By Our Board Scientists: on Chickens, Bananas, Old Salad Dressing, and More
- FAQs about Food Price Increases
- FAQs about Products We Use with Food
- FAQs about Shelf Life: Tortillas, Pancakes, Wine, and More
- Food Fraud: Are you paying for scallops and getting shark meat?
- Is Cheese Addictive? Only If You Eat It
- Nine FAQs about Food Labels
- Quiz Yourself! Check Your Knowledge about Food Temperatures
- Scientists Answer Two FAQs about Egg Safety
- Some Shelf Life Info, General and Specific (Spirits, Defrosted Veggies, Green Tea, and More)
- Syrup from a Tree or from a Lab--Which Should You Pour on Your Pancakes?
- Ten FAQs about the Prickly Pineapple
- What's New in Food? IFT Expo Offers Tasty Innovations
- What's on the Menu in Cuba?
- What’s in My Water? Answers to FAQs
- FAQs on Bacteria
- Books: Food for Thought
- Food Safety
- It Says "Use By Tomorrow," But You Don't Have To
- Ten Tips for Consumer Food Safety
- Food Allergies: Recognizing and Controlling Them
- “Is It Spoiled?” When in Doubt, Check It Out
- How To Keep Your Cooler Cool
- Recent Recalls: Salmonella Threatens 100s of Products
- STOP! Don’t Rinse That Raw Chicken!
- Sous Vide—A Better Way to Cook?
- Why You Need a Safe Cooking Temperature Chart and How to Get One Right Now
- “Myth-information” about Food Safety: You’d Better Not Believe It
- After The Storm: What You Can Save and What You Must Throw Out
- How to Protect Your Food During a Power Outage
- Meet Your Beef--Via Bar Code Info
- Organic Food, GMOs, the Safety of American Food, the Value of Use-By Dates, and More--Scientists Tell Us What They Think
- Raw chicken, Leftovers, Deli Meats, and More-- What Surveyed Scientists Said
- Tips About 4 Popular Beverages: Wine, Coffee, Water, and Soda
- Tips on Water Safety During and After a Storm
- Introducing our Advisory Board Scientists
- Produce: Handling Tips
- Seasonal Tips
- A Novel Method for Cooking a Turkey
- Crock Pot Cooking Tips for that Ideal Winter Dinner
- Cucumbers: for Cool--and "Cool"--Summer Treats
- Going Away for All or Part of the Winter? Prepare Your Kitchen for your Absence
- How To Grill Safely During the Summer
- How do summer squash and winter squash differ?
- New Year’s Resolutions For a Safer Kitchen
- Preserve the Taste of Summer by Canning—But Do It Safely
- Summer Food Fests Offer Much More than Calories
- Summer Party Tips: Baby Carrots (Using for Dips) Hot Dogs (Ditching the Guilt), and Watermelon (Finding a Ripe One)
- Tailgating: How to Do It Right
- Tips on Keeping Your Summer Fruits Flavorful and Healthy
- Shelf Life Tips
- Tips for Carry-along Lunches for Work and School
- Tips for Freezing Food and Freezer Care
- Cooking Frozen Foods
- Freezers And Food Safety
- Freezers And Freezer Burn
- Freezers And Nutrient Retention
- How Often Should You Defrost And Clean Your Freezer?
- How To Defrost And Clean Your Freezer
- How To Defrost Frozen Foods
- How To Freeze Foods: The Quicker The Better
- How To Wrap Foods For The Freezer
- Refreezing Frozen Foods
- What You Can Freeze And What You Can't--Or Shouldn't
- Tips About Genetically Engineered Foods
- Tips for Grocery Shopping
- Tips for Holidays
- Answers to Questions about Thanksgiving Dinner
- Chocolate Is Even More Healthful Than You Thought
- Enjoy St. Patrick’s Day Without Cabbage Stink
- Everything You Need to Know about Cranberry Sauce
- Halloween Treats Even Parents Will Love
- Kitchen Gifts that Really Please
- Kitchen Gifts that Really Work
- Spring Celebrations: What’s on Your Menu?
- Suggestions for Handling Your Child’s “Trick or Treat” Treasures
- Tips for Winter Holiday Meals
- What NOT to Do With Thanksgiving Dinner
- Yikes! The Turkey Is Done, But the Guests Are Delayed! How Do I Keep My Thanksgiving Dinner Warm?
- Tips on Kitchen Equipment
- Tips for Refrigerating Food and Refrigerator Care
- Food Safety Facts
- How To Clean The Refrigerator
- How To Wrap Foods For Refrigeration
- How long can a pie be left unrefrigerated?
- Power Outage? Here’s What to Do with All That Food in the Fridge
- Proper Handling Of Produce In The Crisper(s)
- Proper Refrigeration Placement Of Raw Meat, Chicken, And Fish
- Six Tips for Extending the Shelf Life of Foods
- What Can and Can't Go In The Fridge Door
- Other Tips
- Microwave Cooking
- The 10 Most Dangerous Foods To Consume While Driving
- Are Your Kids Home Alone after School? Educate Them about Snacking
- Clever Inventions That Can Change Eating Habits
- Coffee, Juice, and Food in Central America
- Eggies™ to the Rescue?
- Ever Eaten “Glued” Food?
- Food Definitions: Umami, Locavore, Fruit, Heirloom, and Artisan
- Hot Dogs: What You Should Know about Them
- If You Don't Know Beans about Beans...
- In Defense of Processed Food
- Kids and Cooking: A Good Combo
- New Uses for Old Food: Try 'Em Out!
- Organic Farming and Organic Food: What Are the Benefits?
- Portabella Mushrooms and Their Relatives: How to Handle Them
- Ten Exotic Fruits: Novel Treats to Drink and Eat
- Tofu: Water Regularly, Consume Promptly
- What This Site Is All About and How to Navigate It
- What We're Eating This Year: Ancient Grains, Coconut Oil, Kale, and More
- About Us
- In the News
What’s in My Water? Answers to FAQs
Thirsty? What could be better than a tall, cold glass of water? But how much do you know about the contents of that glass? Recent media attention focused on water contamination has caused us to revisit this topic and seek expert answers to questions not answered elsewhere on the site.
First, let’s get a little background about the water supply we depend upon:
-The Earth’s water supply is limited. We cannot create new water. As the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) points out, “Whether our source of water is a stream, river, lake, spring, or well, we are using the same water the dinosaurs used millions of years ago.”
-Only 1% of the world’s water is potable. Nearly 97% is salt water, and the other 2% is found in ice caps or glaciers.
-According to a 2009 CitizenTube video, about 1.1 billion people don’t have access to clean water. Food scientist Dr. Joe Regenstein provided us with the following example: “In China, the assumption is that the water is not safe to drink, so water for human consumption is always boiled. If you ask for water in a restaurant, it is always served warm so that you ‘know’ it was boiled.”
-We cannot and should not want our drinking water to be completely “pure.” Says the EPA, all sources of drinking water contain some naturally-occurring contaminants which are generally not harmful to those who consume it. Removing all contaminants would not only be expensive and pointless, but, in some cases, it would make the water less good: “A few naturally occurring minerals may actually improve the taste of drinking water and may even have nutritional value at low levels.”
-“In general, the tap water in the U.S. is safe to drink,” says food process engineer Dr. TimothyBowser, “but persons with special health considerations (the elderly, very young, and those with weak immune systems) should be careful.”
Now, let’s move on to the FAQs.
Exactly what is water pollution?
Lenntech (a water treatment company) defines water pollution as “any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses water or lives in it.” In addition, water may be called polluted if it’s unfit for a particular desired use.
What are the categories of water pollution?
Some websites divide water pollution into two categories:
1) natural or man-made or
2) direct or indirect. Lenntech offers the following, more detailed, divisions:
Category: Example(s) or explanation of harm caused:
Disease-causing agents…………............…bacteria, viruses, protozoa
Oxygen-demanding wastes………........…depletes oxygen, causes death of aquatic life
Water-soluble inorganic pollutants…....………acids, salts, toxic metals
Nutrients (nitrates and phosphates)………........deplete oxygen in water; can kill fish, babies
Organic compounds ……..................…..oil, plastics, pesticides; harmful to living things
Suspended sediment…………….........depletes light absorption; spreads dangerous compounds through water
Radioactive compounds ……………........….can cause cancer, birth defects genetic damage
Who regulates the water supply in the U.S.?
The nation’s water is regulated by the EPA mainly through the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act. The individual states also regulate the water supply. About 170,000 public water systems are monitored for some 80 harmful substances (bacteria viruses, pesticides, strong acids, and some metals). According to the EPA, the U.S. has “one of the best supplies of drinking water in the world…Tap water that meets federal and state standards is generally safe to drink.” However, the EPA says, “Threats to drinking water are increasing.”
What are some of the threats?
Short-term disease outbreaks and weather–related catastrophes can temporarily contaminate the water supply in a particular area. When these problems occur, the news media inform people of proper precautions needed.
The EPA points out that the population keeps growing and there are a growing number of activities that can contaminate drinking water. The EPA’s list of polluting activities is quite long and includes the following: chemicals that are improperly disposed of (such as industrial waste); fertilizers and pesticides; animal and human waste; pollutants such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium; and drinking water not properly treated or disinfected. Included as sources of these discharges are the recreational boats, houseboats, and marinas that release solvents, gasoline, and raw sewage directly into rivers, lakes and streams. And, as ironic as it may seem, some procedures used to disinfect water may end up making the water more harmful to drink.
Problems with water contamination vary from one region to another. For example, food scientist Dr. Catherine Cutter points out that pyrite is a problem in Pennsylvania and some other mining areas. When mining exposes the pyrite to air, iron oxide is produced; when it gets into the rivers or other bodies of water, it makes them more acidic, which is harmful to aquatic life.
Some threats that recently or regularly receive media attention include the following:
Chromium: Hexavalent chromium, a toxic metal, has been found in the water of some American cities at much higher levels than what the state of California has adopted as the safe level. According to the Chicago Tribune, this discovery “is renewing a debate about dozens of unregulated substances that are showing up in water supplies nationwide.” Dr. Bowser points out the following: “The EPA is currently re-evaluating the 0.1 mg/L limit in light of new evidence that indicates that chromium may be carcinogenic. I don’t think there is enough reliable information available to make any firm decisions beyond this point.”
Natural Gas: Many activist groups have been advocating against hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), which injects a mixture of water sand, and chemicals into underground shale formations to gain access to embedded oil and gas. The fear is that this process, used in many states, may contaminate drinking water obtained from wells. EWG (the Environmental Working Group) and others are urging the government to ban fracking until more research has been done on its possibly harmful effects.
Medications: Water quality experts and environmental activists are increasingly concerned about water pollution from prescription drugs (such as the antibiotics given to humans and, prophylactically to factory-farmed animals), over-the-counter medications, as well as from sunscreen, perfume, and other personal care products, according to the Harvard Health Letter. According to this publication, “Pharmaceutical pollution doesn’t seem to be harming humans yet, but disturbing clues from aquatic life suggest now is the time for preventive action.”
Lead: Lead in drinking water can cause a variety of adverse health effects on children and adults. Lead is rarely found in source water, but it can enter tap water through corrosion of plumbing materials. Homes built before 1986 are more likely to have lead pipes. However, new homes are also at risk because even legally “lead-free” plumbing may contain up to 8% lead. You can find more information about lead by clicking here. For additional information from the EPA, click here.
Radon: Radon is a naturally-occurring, radioactive gas that may be found in drinking water and air. Water resources specialist Bryan Swistock explains: “Protection from radon starts with indoor air testing. Radon in water is an air problem because the gas escapes into the air from the water. If air radon is high, consider testing the water radon content, especially if you are on private water.” Those exposed to radon have an increased risk of getting cancer (especially lung cancer) over the course of their lives. High levels of radon have been found in every U.S. state. Therefore, says Wikipedia, “testing for radon and installing radon mitigation systems has become a specialized industry within the past two decades.”
Terrorists: If you’re looking for another water supply threat to worry about, here’s a doozy: terrorists could contaminate the water supply with toxic chemicals.
The US Environmental Protection Agency provides a list of contaminants and their maximum allowable level. See http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm#Inorganic
In the U.S., how many people get sick from drinking water annually?
The CDC recently reported figures on drinking water illnesses from 2007-2008. A total of 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 36 outbreaks that were associated with drinking water. These outbreaks caused illness among at least 4,128 persons and were linked to three deaths. The illnesses involved mostly gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms. The outbreaks were associated with untreated or inadequately treated ground water. The report said, “…contamination of ground water remains a public health problem”
Does boiling water guarantee that all pathogens are killed and the water is safe to drink?
“Boiling water for one minute kills the microorganisms that cause disease,” according to the EPA. Dr. Regenstein points this out: “Boiling will not destroy botulism spores, but, even if they happen to be present, they are unlikely to emerge from their spores and produce toxins, so they should not be of concern. As practical matter, water for all but young children is probably okay after boiling. The key is to get it to the boiling point.” Dr. Bowser provides this advice from The Boy Scouts of America: boiling water to a rolling boil with bubbles a half inch in diameter rising from the bottom of the pot will kill microorganisms no matter how high the altitude.
Keep in mind that boiling will not make impurities such as lead or nitrates disappear. In fact, boiling water will make any lead or nitrates in the water more concentrated.
Should I have a filter on the tap water coming into my residence?
Water specialist Brian Swistock gives this advice: “Don’t spend money on water treatment without knowing that a problem exists. Public water systems are required to meet health-based standards, so treatment of them is normally limited to apparent problems relating to tastes, odors, or staining. Simple faucet filters using carbon can be excellent to remove many of these aesthetic pollutants. Any larger, more expensive treatment (like a water softener) should be based on a water test from an accredited water testing lab.” Reverse osmosis filters are often recommended because they filter out more impurities than other filters. However, they may also filter out minerals that are healthy and/or improve the taste of the water. Further negatives: they are hard on the plumbing, and they waste water.
Dr. Bowser says that he likes to filter drinking water at his house. “My filter system is three-stage and includes a “rough” filter to remove any large particles (about 5 micron), a fine filter (0.2 micron) to remove bacteria, and a carbon filter to remove taste, odor and chemicals.”
How can I find out if my tap water is safe to drink?
Here is Swistock’s response: “If you are on public water supply, the testing is done for you. [Households receiving public water should get an annual report about the source(s) and amounts of pollutants in their water.] If you are on private water supplies, you should absolutely be testing your water annually at least for coliform bacteria, pH, total dissolved solids, and any other local pollutants (determined by nearby land uses). If your drinking water comes from a household well, see section #7 of the EPA’s “Water on Tap” booklet.
What can I do to help clean up the water we swim in, wash with, cook with, and drink?
Here are a few suggestions, some obvious, some not so obvious.
1. Be careful where you dispose of trash. Don’t throw either solid or liquid trash into a body of water. Material discarded into the sewage system on the streets often goes untreated into the local water system, says Dr. Regenstein. Don’t throw paints or oils down a drain or into a toilet.
2. Buy nontoxic, biodegradable cleaning products. Even though you have no way of knowing whether they’re really green or not, that’s the best guess.
3. Put unwanted medications into the garbage, not a sink or toilet. Drugs that are consumed get into the water system via urine, but, if all discards were put into the garbage or brought to a take-back facility, that would help.
4. Find out from your community how to properly dispose of hazardous materials.
5. Conserve water. Fix water leaks. Take a quicker shower or a shallower bath. Wear a clean shirt a second time before washing it. If it’s going to rain tomorrow, don’t water your lawn tonight. If you hand-wash your car, don’t keep the hose on the whole time.
6. Use natural, rather than chemical, fertilizers. Chemical fertilizers get washed into the water supply by rain. The website Squidoo recommends compost, manure, and bone meal.
In the product section of this site, under beverages, Shelf Life Advice has Q/As on hard and soft water, bottled water, and many other water–related topics. To browse on Shelf Life Advice for additional information about water, click here. You can also use the site’s index or search box to reach water-related information.
epa.gov “Water on Tap: what you need to know”
epa.gov “Lead in Drinking Water”
Bryan Swistock, Penn State Extension, Dept. of Forest Resources
Joe Regenstein, Ph.D., Cornell University, Dept. of Food Science
Catherine N. Cutter, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, Dept. of Food Science
Timothy Bowser, Ph.D., Oklahoma State University, Dept. of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Chicago Tribune “Toxic metal stays in water” August 7, 2011, p.1.
Water-pollution.org.uk Water Pollution Guide “What Can You Do?”
squidoo.com “How to Decrease Water Pollution at Home”
lenntech.com “Water pollution FAQ Frequently Asked Questions”
Harvard Health Letter, “Drugs in the Water” June, 2011.
Wikipedia, org. “Radon”
citizentube.com “Water, Water Everywhere But Not a Drop to Drink”