- Meat and Poultry
- Fish and Shellfish
- Cream and Cream Products
- Eggs and Egg Whites
- Ice Cream
- Dairy Spreads
- Fruit, Fruit Products
- Sauces, Dressing, and Dips
- Condiments, Herbs & Spices, Spreads
- Ingredients for Cooking
- Prepared Foods
- Bakery Goods and Sweets
- Grains, Pasta, and Cereal
- FAQs on Bacteria
- What are bacteria?
- How can I avoid getting sick from a bacterial illness?
- How dangerous is a staph infection?
- Can I assume that if food smells bad its unsafe to eat and if it smells ok that it is safe to eat?
- How dangerous is botulism?
- How dangerous is listeria?
- How many types of bacteria are there?
- What foods are likely to be contaminated by listeria?
- What foods can give a person a staph infection?
- What foods can give a person botulism?
- Why do some bacteria make people sick?
- Why does refrigeration keep bacteria from multiplying?
- Can I avoid all contact with bacteria if I’m careful?
- How Many Bacteria Does It Take to Cause Illness?
- FAQs on Cookware
- Are Ceramic and Enamel Cookware Safe and Practical?
- Are Nonstick Coatings on Cookware a Health Risk?
- Do Cast Iron, Glass, Copper, and Titanium Cookware Have Any Disadvantages?
- Does Using Aluminum Cookware Increase the Chances of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease?
- Is Stainless Steel Cookware a Good Choice?
- Is the New Silicone Rubberized Cookware Safe?
- Nonstick Cookware: Is it Dangerous?
- What Brands of Cookware are Recommended by Experts?
- What Features Should I Look for When Selecting Cookware?
- What Should I Know about Selecting and Using Aluminum Cookware?
- FAQs about Definitions
- Exactly what is meant by the phrase perishable food?
- Defining Some Current Language about Food
- What Does the Word “Foodie” Mean? It Depends Who(m) You Ask
- What do “sell by,” “best by/before,” “use by” and “expiration” mean?
- What does the term shelf life mean?
- What's in Our Food? Maybe Processing Aids, Maybe not
- “Fresh,” “Natural,” “Processed”—What Do These Words Mean?
- FAQs on Dropped Food
- FAQs on Farmers' Markets
- Exactly what defines a farmers’ market?
- Farmers' Markets: Why They're So Popular; How to Find One Near Your Home
- How should I handle produce at home?
- What foods are sold with restrictions at a farmers’ market?
- What should I bring to the farmers’ market?
- What shouldn’t I do or eat at a farmers’ market?
- What signs indicate a sanitary farmers’ market?
- What time of day is it best to go to a farmers’ market?
- FAQs on Food-borne Illness and Mishandling of Food
- About how many cases of food-borne illness occur in the U.S. each year?
- Answer Key to “How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?”
- How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?
- I Left It Out Too Long! Can I Still Eat It?
- Should Your Grocery Card Track Food-Borne Illnesses?
- Sudden, Awful Intestinal Distress--Is it the Flu or a Foodborne Illness--or Both?
- What YOU Can Do to Avoid Food-borne Illness
- What does the phrase food-borne illness refer to?
- FAQs on Food Product Dating
- Are stores required, by law, to remove outdated items from their shelves?
- Do most consumers actually pay attention to the dating on foods?
- Does the “use by” date matter once the product is frozen?
- Is information on food longevity and safety available by phone?
- What are expiration dates?
- What do the terms closed dating and open dating mean?
- What should consumers know about food product dating?
- When Did You Buy It? When Did You Open It?
- When to Throw Food Out? Not on the Use-By Date
- Who establishes these product dates?
- Who requires and regulates dating on foods?
- Why do “best by” and “use by” dates sometimes seem conservative?
- FAQs on Food Safety
- "Is It Safe To….?" FAQs Answered by our Advisory Board
- FAQs about Ground Beef, Seasonings, Olive Oil, Lemon Wedges, and Fish
- FAQs about Mushrooms: Are they Very Dirty or Very Clean?
- FAQs about Soft Cheeses--What's Safe, What Isn't
- FAQs on BPA: the attacks continue, but are they justified?
- FAQs on Food Safety and Nutrition
- FAQs on Raw Fruits and Veggies—the Answers Can Protect Your Wallet and Your Health
- FAQs: Cutting Boards and Kitchen Counters--Selection and Care
- Food Bars/Buffets in Supermarkets--Is the food safe? How can you tell?
- Food/Meat Thermometers—What You Need to Know
- How Long Should Cheese Be Aged? Will the Rules Be Changed?
- How Long Will They REALLY Last? Part I: Non-perishables
- How Long Will They REALLY last? Part II: Perishables
- Imported Foods—What’s Safe, What’s Risky?
- Is It Safe? Is It Nutritious? More Survey Answers from Scientists
- Is It Time to Switch to Pasteurized Eggs?
- Is the Food Safety Modernization Act Making Our Food Supply Safer?
- More FAQs about Minimum Safe Cooking Temperatures: Pork and Other Perishables
- Sushi: Why Such a Short Shelf Life?
- Winter Food Storage—Can I leave It in the Car or in the Garage?
- Would You—Should You—Do You--Eat Irradiated Food?
- FAQs on Food Wrapping
- Are any plastic wraps or containers really “microwave safe”?
- Are some plastic wraps more effective than others?
- Can I refrigerate meat and poultry in its store wrapping?
- Can I use plastic freezer bags to store produce in the fridge?
- Can chemicals leach unto food from plastic wrap or containers?
- Do coated plastic bags really help produce last longer?
- Does aluminum foil give foods a metallic taste?
- Does exposure to aluminum cause Alzheimer’s disease?
- Everything You Need to Know about Wrapping Food Right
- How should fruits be wrapped before refrigeration?
- Is it safe to use aluminum foil in a microwave oven?
- Should I wrap raw vegetables loosely or tightly before refrigerating?
- What are some advantages and disadvantages of aluminum foil?
- What produce needs to be wrapped before refrigerating?
- What’s better for wrapping food—plastic or aluminum foil?
- Why does foil sometimes darken, discolor, and leave black specks on food?
- Will a foil cover help keep foods on the table hot or cold?
- FAQs on Freezing Food
- FAQs on Leftovers
- FAQs on Mold
- What is mold?
- Does mold ever grow on nonperishable food?
- Can I remove a moldy part from food and eat the rest?
- About how many different kinds of molds are there?
- How can I avoid getting mold on my refrigerated food?
- Is mold always visible?
- Are any molds harmless?
- What food groups are most susceptible to mold?
- What kinds of illnesses can result from eating moldy food?
- What kind of packaging protects foods from mold?
- What other safety tips will help prevent mold from growing?
- Why are some molds dangerous?
- FAQs on Organic Food
- What Is Organic Food?
- Are Organic Methods More Humane to Animals?
- Does Conventional Food Have a Longer Shelf Life Than Organic?
- Does Organic Food Taste Better than Conventional Food?
- Is Organic Food More Nutritious Than Conventional Food?
- Is Organically Grown Food Better for the Environment?
- What Do the Various Organic Labels Mean?
- What Important Contributions Has the Organic Movement Made?
- Which Are Safer: Organic or Conventional Food Products?
- Will Organic Baby Food Make Baby Healthier?
- FAQs on Oxidation: How It Affects Foods
- FAQs about Plastic Products Used with Food
- Pyrex® Glassware: Is it safe to use?
- Are plastic bags safe to use in the microwave?
- Are some plastic wraps safer and/or more effective than others?
- Are there any health risks from reusing plastic water bottles by refilling them with tap water?
- Are we eating chemicals from plastics along with our food?
- Can I microwave food in my plastic containers?
- Does the plastic used in water bottles pose a health risk?
- If I heat food in an open can, will that cause the plastic lining to leach chemicals into the food?
- Is it safe to heat frozen entrées in their plastic containers and with their plastic wrap?
- Is it safe to use plastic wrap as a covering when microwaving food?
- Is it safe to wash and dry plastic plates, cups, containers, and utensils in the dishwasher?
- Is there good evidence that BPA is harmful to human health?
- What is BPA?
- Why is so much of today’s food packaged in plastic?
- FAQs on Preservatives
- What are Preservatives?
- All things considered, is our food supply safer or less safe because of preservatives?
- Are the preservatives in hot dogs and similar products health risks?
- What preservatives are known to cause allergic reactions?
- What are some common preservatives used in food?
- What food groups commonly have preservatives in them?
- Why are preservatives added to food?
- Will the label on the product tell me if it contains a preservative?
- FAQs on Washing Produce: Why and How
- Other FAQs
- Can chicken soup really cure a cold?
- Is Chocolate Good For You?
- Can Science and Technology Help You Save Food Dollars?
- FAQs Answered By Our Board Scientists: on Chickens, Bananas, Old Salad Dressing, and More
- FAQs about Food Price Increases
- FAQs about Products We Use with Food
- FAQs about Shelf Life: Tortillas, Pancakes, Wine, and More
- Food Fraud: Are you paying for scallops and getting shark meat?
- Is Cheese Addictive? Only If You Eat It
- Missing Chickens: Where Have All the Small Ones Gone?
- Nine FAQs about Food Labels
- Quiz Yourself! Check Your Knowledge about Food Temperatures
- Scientists Answer Two FAQs about Egg Safety
- Should Sour Cream and Cottage Cheese Be Stored Upside Down?
- Some Shelf Life Info, General and Specific (Spirits, Defrosted Veggies, Green Tea, and More)
- Syrup from a Tree or from a Lab--Which Should You Pour on Your Pancakes?
- Ten FAQs about the Prickly Pineapple
- What's New in Food? IFT Expo Offers Tasty Innovations
- What's on the Menu in Cuba?
- What’s in My Water? Answers to FAQs
- What will you be dining on this year? Here are predictions from folks in the know
- FAQs on Bacteria
- Books: Food for Thought
- Food Safety
- It Says "Use By Tomorrow," But You Don't Have To
- Ten Tips for Consumer Food Safety
- Food Allergies: Recognizing and Controlling Them
- “Is It Spoiled?” When in Doubt, Check It Out
- How To Keep Your Cooler Cool
- Recent Recalls: Salmonella Threatens 100s of Products
- STOP! Don’t Rinse That Raw Chicken!
- Sous Vide—A Better Way to Cook?
- Why You Need a Safe Cooking Temperature Chart and How to Get One Right Now
- “Myth-information” about Food Safety: You’d Better Not Believe It
- After The Storm: What You Can Save and What You Must Throw Out
- How to Protect Your Food During a Power Outage
- Meet Your Beef--Via Bar Code Info
- Raw chicken, Leftovers, Deli Meats, and More-- What Surveyed Scientists Said
- Tips About 4 Popular Beverages: Wine, Coffee, Water, and Soda
- Tips on Reheating for Safe, Yummy Leftovers
- Tips on Water Safety During and After a Storm
- Introducing our Advisory Board Scientists
- Produce: Handling Tips
- Seasonal Tips
- A Novel Method for Cooking a Turkey
- Crock Pot Cooking Tips for that Ideal Winter Dinner
- Cucumbers: for Cool--and "Cool"--Summer Treats
- Going Away for All or Part of the Winter? Prepare Your Kitchen for your Absence
- How To Grill Safely During the Summer
- How do summer squash and winter squash differ?
- New Year’s Resolutions For a Safer Kitchen
- Preserve the Taste of Summer by Canning—But Do It Safely
- Summer Food Fests Offer Much More than Calories
- Tailgating: How to Do It Right
- Tips on Keeping Your Summer Fruits Flavorful and Healthy
- Shelf Life Tips
- A Food App You're Apt to Like; A Brand-New Invention for Getting Shelf-Life Information
- Battling the Ripening of Bananas
- Food Preservation--Low-tech Past, High-Tech Present and Future
- From Purchase to Storage, Tips on Extending Shelf Life
- Pesto: Ingredients, Uses, Shelf Life, Contamination, and More
- Shelf Life of Foods: What You Need to Know
- Shellfish and Shelf Life Aid from the Canadian Maritime Provinces
- Tips for Carry-along Lunches for Work and School
- Tips for Freezing Food and Freezer Care
- Cooking Frozen Foods
- Freezers And Food Safety
- Freezers And Freezer Burn
- Freezers And Nutrient Retention
- How Often Should You Defrost And Clean Your Freezer?
- How To Defrost And Clean Your Freezer
- How To Defrost Frozen Foods
- How To Freeze Foods: The Quicker The Better
- How To Wrap Foods For The Freezer
- Refreezing Frozen Foods
- What You Can Freeze And What You Can't--Or Shouldn't
- Tips About Genetically Engineered Foods
- Tips for Grocery Shopping
- Tips for Holidays
- Answers to Questions about Thanksgiving Dinner
- Chocolate Is Even More Healthful Than You Thought
- Enjoy St. Patrick’s Day Without Cabbage Stink
- Everything You Need to Know about Cranberry Sauce
- Food-Related Gifts Recommended by Experts (2014)
- Halloween Treats Even Parents Will Love
- Kitchen Gifts that Really Please
- Kitchen Gifts that Really Work
- Our 2016 List of Gifts To Please Every Cook
- Spring Celebrations: What’s on Your Menu?
- Suggestions for Handling Your Child’s “Trick or Treat” Treasures
- Tips for Winter Holiday Meals
- What NOT to Do With Thanksgiving Dinner
- Yikes! The Turkey Is Done, But the Guests Are Delayed! How Do I Keep My Thanksgiving Dinner Warm?
- Tips on Kitchen Equipment
- Tips for Refrigerating Food and Refrigerator Care
- Food Safety Facts
- How To Clean The Refrigerator
- How To Wrap Foods For Refrigeration
- How long can a pie be left unrefrigerated?
- Power Outage? Here’s What to Do with All That Food in the Fridge
- Proper Handling Of Produce In The Crisper(s)
- Proper Refrigeration Placement Of Raw Meat, Chicken, And Fish
- Six Tips for Extending the Shelf Life of Foods
- What Can and Can't Go In The Fridge Door
- Other Tips
- Microwave Cooking
- The 10 Most Dangerous Foods To Consume While Driving
- Are Your Kids Home Alone after School? Educate Them about Snacking
- Clever Inventions That Can Change Eating Habits
- Coffee, Juice, and Food in Central America
- Eggies™ to the Rescue?
- Ever Eaten “Glued” Food?
- Food Definitions: Umami, Locavore, Fruit, Heirloom, and Artisan
- Hot Dogs: What You Should Know about Them
- If You Don't Know Beans about Beans...
- In Defense of Processed Food
- Kids and Cooking: A Good Combo
- New Uses for Old Food: Try 'Em Out!
- Organic Farming and Organic Food: What Are the Benefits?
- Our Board Scientists Talk about 2015 Food Trends
- Portabella Mushrooms and Their Relatives: How to Handle Them
- Ten Exotic Fruits: Novel Treats to Drink and Eat
- Tips on Fishing and on Selecting Healthful Fish
- Tips on Making Food Appealing, Food Safety and BPA (again)
- Tofu: Water Regularly, Consume Promptly
- Want to get some/all of your protein from plants? We'll tell you what's tasty
- What This Site Is All About and How to Navigate It
- What We're Eating This Year: Ancient Grains, Coconut Oil, Kale, and More
- About Us
- In the News
FAQs on BPA: the attacks continue, but are they justified?
For the past 6 years, Shelf Life Advice has been posting information about BPA. That's when the chemical first came on the horizon as a health concern, says the University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter. In case you've missed all the bad press BPA has gotten, here's a quick definition and review: BPA is a chemical compound (Bisphenol-A) that's been used to make a wide array of plastic products including bottles, silverware food packaging, most soup and beer can linings, store receipts, dental composites, eyeglass lenses, auto parts, and compact disks. It works fine for all of these purposes, but it also has many people worry about possible harm to the human body.
BPA has inspired fierce debate and a great deal of media attention, including two recent articles in Newsweek. Here's the main question being debated: Is it harmful to humans, or is the amount we're exposed to so small that its presence is insignificant and/or is it excreted so rapidly that it's no threat to human health? At this time, it's still perfectly legal to use BPA in products that come in contact with foods, except for those consumed by infants.
The Berkeley Wellness Letter says billions of pounds of BPA are produced every year, and "our overall exposure to it has not gone down."
Given the uncertainties and fears associated with BPA, we end the article with suggestions on how to decrease the amount of impact it has on you and your family.
What harmful effects has BPA been accused of causing?
Scientific evidence (discussed in the January 2015 Newsweek article) mentions evidence that BPA is an endocrine disruptor, which means that it can interfere with the functioning of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone and cause problems in human reproduction and development, brain function, and cardiovascular health. But do studies of the hyperactivity of fish larvae (and other animal studies) tell us anything about the human response to this chemical? Other studies show that children whose mothers had higher levels of BPA during their pregnancy had "a slightly increased risk of developing ADHD [Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder]."
A 2014 study mentioned in the Berkeley Wellness Letter found that men with prostate cancer had higher levels of BPA than men without cancer, but this association certainly does not prove that BPA causes or even aggravates prostate cancer.
Here's what a March 4, 2015 Newsweek article had to say: "Newsweek spoke with about 20 scientists, leaders in the field of BPA research, and the majority say it is likely (though not certain) that the chemical plays a role in a litany of health concerns: obesity, diabetes, problems with fertility and reproductive organs, and susceptibility to various cancers and cognitive/behavioral deficits like ADHD."
The January Newsweek article says "There are links between government activities regarding BPA and the plastics industry." Newsweek goes on to quote the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, which said the following: "A government report claiming that Bisphenol A is safe was written largely by the plastics industry and others with a financial stake in the controversial chemical."
Who wants BPA usage discontinued and why?
Food scientist Dr. Joe Regenstein says this: "I do believe, where possible, companies are trying to reduce their use of BPA. It is clearly another case of misinformation and consumer lack of trust in science that is leading to its removal. The science does not seem to support its removal. I suspect that some of its replacements may be proprietary at this point." Another food scientist who serves on the Shelf Life Advice Advisory Board, Dr. Catherine Cutter, also attributes changes to consumer pressure. "Consumers have a lot of sway," she says.
Yet a third Board member, food process engineer Dr. Timothy Bowser, points out the financial advantage for companies that find an alternative to BPA: "I think that container and packaging manufacturers are actively looking for BPA-free materials. “BPA free” will be a tremendous marketing advantage, so there is much to be gained by attaining this claim. I don’t think that there is any clear replacement for BPA available at this time, but I do believe that it will be available in the future. A great deal of testing will be required to make certain that the replacement is safe. In my opinion, BPA should be proven safe or phased out." Dr. Bowser makes an important point here; according to a January Newsweek article, the substitute that some manufacturers are now using, Bisphenol-S [BPS], may be no improvement over BPA since it may have similar harmful effects upon the human body.
What has been the U.S. government's response to consumer fears of BPA?
In 2012, the FDA ruled that BPA could no longer be used in baby bottles and sippy cups. However, the FDA has continued to say that the chemical is safe. Nevertheless, in response to the hue and cry, many companies have replaced BPA with other chemicals.
What is the FDA going to do about BPA? Will it simply ignore the public outcry? Is that what it's done in the past? Not really. Here's what the FDA said about BPA in its updated (Nov. 2014) report entitled "Bisphenol A (BPA): Use in Food Contact Applications": "FDA’s current perspective, based on its most recent safety assessment, is that BPA is safe at the current levels occurring in foods. Based on FDA’s ongoing safety review of scientific evidence, the available information continues to support the safety of BPA for the currently approved uses in food containers and packaging."
The second page of this report reviews research that supports the FDA's position. Page 3 (the "New Steps and Collaborations" section) discusses what the FDA will continue to do to keep track of scientific evidence on the effects of BPA. These efforts include working with other U.S. federal agencies and international regulatory and public health counterparts to monitor research on BPA.
Why was BPA added to cans in the first place, for what benefit?
Food scientist Dr. Karin Allen says BPA is extremely useful as a liner in cans, especially in cans containing acidic foods, for example tomato products. The BPA lining prevents a chemical reaction between the metal can and the food; therefore, it prevents the acid from causing the can to swell. Before the use of BPA, if a can became swollen, consumers didn't know if the cause was a chemical reaction or the bacteria that cause botulism.
The elimination of the BPA lining has another drawback. If the use of BPA in cans is eliminated and not replaced with other material that could prevent a chemical reaction between the food and the metal can, there might be a lot more food waste because of unwarranted fear of cans improperly suspected of being contaminated.
Dr. Allen also mentioned that the introduction of the BPA liner slightly changed the taste of canned food. In the 1960s, when BPA was introduced, some consumers noticed this and complained, "Canned food doesn't taste like it used to." Dr. Regenstein says, "They were missing the 'metallic taste' that resulted from the reaction of the food with the can!"
What does recent research reveal about the risks of exposure to BPA?
It's impossible for Shelf Life Advice (or any other source) to come to definitive conclusions about the safety or risks of BPA. Studies have shown that at least 90% of Americans have BPA in their urine, but it may be harmless because the amounts are low, and BPA is excreted rapidly. BPA is widely used by dentists. But again, the BPA in our fillings is too small an amount to present a problem, says the American Dental Association. But scientists don't agree on how much is too little to matter. The plastics industry defends BPA as safe, and scientists can be found on both sides of the issue. Meanwhile, many manufacturers are voluntarily switching to other products. Are these new ones any safer? It's too soon to tell.
If the information about possible adverse effects of BPA upon the body worry you, what can you do to protect yourself from contact with the chemical?
Food scientist Dr. Susan Brewer (writing for Shelf Life Advice in 2009) pointed out that the numbers 3 or 7 inside the recycle triangle on a product label or on the bottom of a container means that BPA is most likely used in the manufacture of the container. You can limit your contact with BPA by not buying or using containers with these numbers.
Note that the following products are no longer made from polycarbonate containing BPA: baby bottles, toys, plastic wraps, margarine and yogurt containers, and egg cartons. (See plastic products for further information.)
Since the current substitutes for BPA may be no safer than BPA, The University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter (May 2015) made these suggestions for those wanting to avoid BPA:
- "Instead of polycarbonate bottles and food containers, use glass, stainless steel, or aluminum."
- Be careful about how you use plastic containers. Don't expose them to high heat by putting boiling water in them or putting them into the dishwasher.
- Cut down on your use of canned foods in your home. Instead, purchase foods that come in jars or cartons. Use more frozen or fresh food.
- Try to avoid handling thermal printer paper receipts whenever possible. The paper is often coated with BPA as a developer. If you don't need the receipt, don't accept it from the salesperson. If you do take the receipt, put it in an envelope or plastic bag rather than loose in a pocket or purse. After you've handled a receipt, do not handle food until after you've washed your hands.
The Berkeley Wellness Letter concludes with these "most important" warnings: "Don't touch thermal receipts right after using alcohol-based hand sanitizer or hand lotion--or even if your hands are greasy or wet with water." Finally, this advice: "If your job requires frequent contact with thermal paper, wear disposable gloves."
Note: If you are pregnant and/or have young children, you might want to make an effort to cut down on exposure to BPA in your home. "Better safe than sorry," the expression advises.
To reach links to other Shelf Life Advice articles on BPA, just type "BPA" into the search box on the home page. To further educate yourself about this controversial topic, read the articles listed in "sources" below.
fda.gov "Bisphenol A (BPA): Use in Food Contact Applications"
newsweek.com "BPA Is Fine, If You Ignore Most Studies About It"
by Douglas Main / March 4, 2015
newsweek.com "BPA and Its Substitute Alter Brain Growth, Linked to Hyperactivity"
by Douglas Main 1/15/15
University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter, "What should you believe about BPA?"
Shelf Life Advice Advisory Board Members who contributed to this article:
Karin E. Allen, Ph.D., Utah State University, Dept. of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences
Timothy J. Bowser, Ph.D., Oklahoma State University, Dept. of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Catherine Nettles Cutter, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, Department of Food Science
Joe Regenstein, Ph.D., Cornell University, Dept. of Food Science