- Meat and Poultry
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- What are bacteria?
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- How many types of bacteria are there?
- What foods are likely to be contaminated by listeria?
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- Exactly what is meant by the phrase perishable food?
- Defining Some Current Language about Food
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- What's in Our Food? Maybe Processing Aids, Maybe not
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- Exactly what defines a farmers’ market?
- Farmers' Markets: Why They're So Popular; How to Find One Near Your Home
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- FAQs on Food-borne Illness and Mishandling of Food
- About how many cases of food-borne illness occur in the U.S. each year?
- Answer Key to “How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?”
- How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?
- I Left It Out Too Long! Can I Still Eat It?
- Should Your Grocery Card Track Food-Borne Illnesses?
- Sudden, Awful Intestinal Distress--Is it the Flu or a Foodborne Illness--or Both?
- What YOU Can Do to Avoid Food-borne Illness
- What does the phrase food-borne illness refer to?
- FAQs on Food Product Dating
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- Do most consumers actually pay attention to the dating on foods?
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- What should consumers know about food product dating?
- When Did You Buy It? When Did You Open It?
- Who establishes these product dates?
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- Why do “best by” and “use by” dates sometimes seem conservative?
- FAQs on Food Safety
- "Is It Safe To….?" FAQs Answered by our Advisory Board
- FAQs about Mushrooms: Are they Very Dirty or Very Clean?
- FAQs about Soft Cheeses--What's Safe, What Isn't
- FAQs on Food Safety and Nutrition
- FAQs on Raw Fruits and Veggies—the Answers Can Protect Your Wallet and Your Health
- Food/Meat Thermometers—What You Need to Know
- How Long Should Cheese Be Aged? Will the Rules Be Changed?
- How Long Will They REALLY Last? Part I: Non-perishables
- How Long Will They REALLY last? Part II: Perishables
- Imported Foods—What’s Safe, What’s Risky?
- Is It Time to Switch to Pasteurized Eggs?
- Is the Food Safety Modernization Act Making Our Food Supply Safer?
- More FAQs about Minimum Safe Cooking Temperatures: Pork and Other Perishables
- Sushi: Why Such a Short Shelf Life?
- Winter Food Storage—Can I leave It in the Car or in the Garage?
- Would You—Should You—Do You--Eat Irradiated Food?
- FAQs on Food Wrapping
- Are any plastic wraps or containers really “microwave safe”?
- Are some plastic wraps more effective than others?
- Can I refrigerate meat and poultry in its store wrapping?
- Can I use plastic freezer bags to store produce in the fridge?
- Can chemicals leach unto food from plastic wrap or containers?
- Do coated plastic bags really help produce last longer?
- Does aluminum foil give foods a metallic taste?
- Does exposure to aluminum cause Alzheimer’s disease?
- Everything You Need to Know about Wrapping Food Right
- How should fruits be wrapped before refrigeration?
- Is it safe to use aluminum foil in a microwave oven?
- Should I wrap raw vegetables loosely or tightly before refrigerating?
- What are some advantages and disadvantages of aluminum foil?
- What produce needs to be wrapped before refrigerating?
- What’s better for wrapping food—plastic or aluminum foil?
- Why does foil sometimes darken, discolor, and leave black specks on food?
- Will a foil cover help keep foods on the table hot or cold?
- FAQs on Freezing Food
- FAQs on Leftovers
- FAQs on Mold
- What is mold?
- Does mold ever grow on nonperishable food?
- Can I remove a moldy part from food and eat the rest?
- About how many different kinds of molds are there?
- How can I avoid getting mold on my refrigerated food?
- Is mold always visible?
- Are any molds harmless?
- What food groups are most susceptible to mold?
- What kinds of illnesses can result from eating moldy food?
- What kind of packaging protects foods from mold?
- What other safety tips will help prevent mold from growing?
- Why are some molds dangerous?
- FAQs on Organic Food
- What Is Organic Food?
- Are Organic Methods More Humane to Animals?
- Does Conventional Food Have a Longer Shelf Life Than Organic?
- Does Organic Food Taste Better than Conventional Food?
- Is Organic Food More Nutritious Than Conventional Food?
- Is Organically Grown Food Better for the Environment?
- What Do the Various Organic Labels Mean?
- What Important Contributions Has the Organic Movement Made?
- Which Are Safer: Organic or Conventional Food Products?
- Will Organic Baby Food Make Baby Healthier?
- FAQs on Oxidation: How It Affects Foods
- FAQs about Plastic Products Used with Food
- Pyrex® Glassware: Is it safe to use?
- Are plastic bags safe to use in the microwave?
- Are some plastic wraps safer and/or more effective than others?
- Are there any health risks from reusing plastic water bottles by refilling them with tap water?
- Are we eating chemicals from plastics along with our food?
- Can I microwave food in my plastic containers?
- Does the plastic used in water bottles pose a health risk?
- If I heat food in an open can, will that cause the plastic lining to leach chemicals into the food?
- Is it safe to heat frozen entrées in their plastic containers and with their plastic wrap?
- Is it safe to use plastic wrap as a covering when microwaving food?
- Is it safe to wash and dry plastic plates, cups, containers, and utensils in the dishwasher?
- Is there good evidence that BPA is harmful to human health?
- Of the plastic products used to store, heat, or eat with (wraps, bags, containers, silverware, plates, etc.), which contain BPA?
- What is BPA?
- Why is so much of today’s food packaged in plastic?
- FAQs on Preservatives
- What are Preservatives?
- All things considered, is our food supply safer or less safe because of preservatives?
- Are the preservatives in hot dogs and similar products health risks?
- What preservatives are known to cause allergic reactions?
- What are some common preservatives used in food?
- What food groups commonly have preservatives in them?
- Why are preservatives added to food?
- Will the label on the product tell me if it contains a preservative?
- FAQs on Washing Produce: Why and How
- Other FAQs
- Can chicken soup really cure a cold?
- Is Chocolate Good For You?
- Can Science and Technology Help You Save Food Dollars?
- FAQs Answered By Our Board Scientists: on Chickens, Bananas, Old Salad Dressing, and More
- FAQs about Food Price Increases
- FAQs about Shelf Life: Tortillas, Pancakes, Wine, and More
- Food Fraud: Are you paying for scallops and getting shark meat?
- Is Cheese Addictive? Only If You Eat It
- Nine FAQs about Food Labels
- Quiz Yourself! Check Your Knowledge about Food Temperatures
- Scientists Answer Two FAQs about Egg Safety
- Some Shelf Life Info, General and Specific (Spirits, Defrosted Veggies, Green Tea, and More)
- Ten FAQs about the Prickly Pineapple
- What's New in Food? IFT Expo Offers Tasty Innovations
- What's on the Menu in Cuba?
- What’s in My Water? Answers to FAQs
- FAQs on Bacteria
- Books: Food for Thought
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- It Says "Use By Tomorrow," But You Don't Have To
- Ten Tips for Consumer Food Safety
- Food Allergies: Recognizing and Controlling Them
- “Is It Spoiled?” When in Doubt, Check It Out
- How To Keep Your Cooler Cool
- Recent Recalls: Salmonella Threatens 100s of Products
- STOP! Don’t Rinse That Raw Chicken!
- Sous Vide—A Better Way to Cook?
- Why You Need a Safe Cooking Temperature Chart and How to Get One Right Now
- “Myth-information” about Food Safety: You’d Better Not Believe It
- After The Storm: What You Can Save and What You Must Throw Out
- How to Protect Your Food During a Power Outage
- Meet Your Beef--Via Bar Code Info
- Tips About 4 Popular Beverages: Wine, Coffee, Water, and Soda
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- Introducing our Advisory Board Scientists
- Produce: Handling Tips
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- Going Away for All or Part of the Winter? Prepare Your Kitchen for your Absence
- How To Grill Safely During the Summer
- How do summer squash and winter squash differ?
- New Year’s Resolutions For a Safer Kitchen
- Preserve the Taste of Summer by Canning—But Do It Safely
- Summer Food Fests Offer Much More than Calories
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Tips for Winter Holiday Meals
From eggnog to fruitcake and all that’s served in between, our Advisory Board members have provided tips to help make your holiday feast(s) safe and tasty. So let’s get started on our journey through the traditional holiday dinner.
Food process engineer Dr. Tim Bowser provides these tips on handling the season’s traditional alcoholic beverages.
Making and storing eggnog:
Of course, you can buy non-alcoholic eggnog in almost every grocery store this time of year and then add the alcohol. But if you want to make your own, you’ll find some of my favorite recipes are available at the following links.
Safe eggnog recipe from Utah State University:
The Joy of Eggnog by Patricia Mitchell
When making eggnog, be sure to use pasteurized eggs, or pasteurize them yourself by cooking the egg and milk mixture to 160° F. Even in the fridge, it won’t last long–about three days if well prepared. Alcohol can act as a preservative, but it is diluted in the eggnog and cannot be relied on to effectively kill bacteria. One option is to use leftover eggnog as an ingredient in a recipe like cake or ice cream.
Preserving champagne: If you have leftover champagne, the most basic option is to tightly cap (with original cork or facsimile if possible) and refrigerate. The cap will hold in the bubbles and refrigeration will slow their escape and reduce microbiological activity. Some vendors sell replacement caps that are easy to install and remove, and hold securely. Another option is to pressurize the headspace to prevent the bubbles from escaping. This can be accomplished with a device such as an Epivac stopper, which uses a small pump to force air into the bottle. Reminder: when opening the bottle, do NOT point the cork towards anyone.
Preserving wine: Concepts of preservation for wine are similar to champagne; first tightly cap the bottle and refrigerate it. You can use a device like an “Epivac stopper” to pump air out of the bottle. The removal of air will help preserve the wine by slowing oxidation. Another, perhaps better, option is to purchase a container of preservative gas and spray it into the headspace of the wine bottle. The preservative gas displaces the headspace air with an inert gas (like nitrogen) which is heavier than air and does not support oxidation of the wine.
To learn more about the proper care of wine, click here: http://shelflifeadvice.com/beverages/alcoholic/wine
Food scientist Dr. Clair Hicks supplies these tips on handling appetizers properly.
Cheese: Most cheese tastes best if warmed to room temperature prior to serving. Set it out, covered, for about 20 minutes before the party begins. Cheese should not be set out for a long period of time. After a couple of hours at room temperature, cheese will start to dry out, so it is best to serve only as much cheese as you think will be consumed in 30 minutes. When that’s gone, you can replenish the supply. If cheese is left out for more than an hour, it dries out, so discard it for quality reasons. If not too dry, hard cheeses can be refrigerated and served again at the next party. Safety of hard cheese at room temperature is not a big issue. High moisture soft cheeses should be discarded after the eating event if they’ve been out of the fridge for awhile.
For more information on cheeses, click here http://shelflifeadvice.com/dairy/cheese/soft-cheese and http://shelflifeadvice.com/dairy/cheese/hard-and-semi-hard-cheese
Other appetizers: Most other appetizers, including raw vegetables, are best if served chilled. Vegetables maintain their crisp textures longer if the serving dish is placed on a bed of ice. Some appetizers, such as shrimp rings, should always be kept on a bed of ice. These types of appetizers should also be put out in small portions so that they are consumed within 30 minutes and then replaced with a new batch. This procedure will limit the growth of spoilage organisms. Items such as shrimp rings that have been set out for more than 1 – 1½ hours should be discarded.
About one-half of all American families eat turkey for Xmas dinner, but lamb and ham are also popular choices. Some households try duck or goose for a change from the usual fare. Others eat what is or was the traditional entrée in their families’ country of origin.
Shelf Life Advice has many Q/As on the more common entrées in the meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish categories. You can reach these by clicking on the home page photos (or the text below them) or entering the product name in the search feature on the site’s home page. The Q/As cover safe handling, preparation tips, and shelf life information about the products.
For more exotic entrées, see: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Meat_Preparation_Fact_Sheets/index.asp
On this USDA page, you’ll find links to information about a wide variety of meats including game meats such as venison and antelope; goat, used common in Caribbean and Indian cuisine; rabbit; and chitterlings. (Also called “chitlins,” this dish is made from the large intestine of swine.
Go to this government link--
For information on exotic game birds such as pheasant, quail, and partridge. This page also contains a link to ratites—flightless birds such as the emu, ostrich, and rhea, which are served in more innovative restaurants and are growing in popularity because they taste like beef but contain much less fat.
If you want to work extraordinarily hard preparing a holiday feast, consider constructing turducken. This dish combines different kinds of boneless poultry (usually chicken, turkey, and duck) into a single layered dish. Click here for help with this project:
Casseroles, potatoes, and other starchy foods: Food scientist Karin Allen points out that any starchy, moist side dish (a casserole, sweet potatoes, etc.) must be handled with care after being cooked to avoid contaminating it. The particular bacteria of concern are Staphylococcus aureus, commonly called “staph.” When vegetables are raw, there is a limit to how much staph can grow because staph is not very competitive. Other bacteria limit how fast it can multiply. But once the other bacteria are killed by cooking, a product that is recontaminated with staph may quickly become a source of illness. Staph are a very common bacteria. It’s in the environment—in nasal passages and on the skin—and it thrives in a warm, high starch environment. Even if the food has been heated properly, the toxin may remain behind and cause illness within 3-4 hours. So here’s the warning: When working with cooked food, especially starchy cooked food, be especially careful. Use clean hands and clean utensils. Before refrigerating leftovers, spread them out no thicker than 2 inches and make smaller portions rather than refrigerating a large amount in one container. Reheat the food to 165°F.
Vegetables: If your holiday entertaining involves smaller groups, Dr. Allen has this suggestion: since vegetables don’t reheat well, don’t cook a large quantity at one time. Instead, blanche them, and throw them into an ice bath to stop the cooking. Why? In the fridge, blanched vegetables will last longer than fresh vegetables then you can finish cooking them in smaller quantities (for 2-3 minutes) as you need them.
Cakes and cookies: Food scientist Dr. Catherine Cutter gives us the good news that many popular winter holiday treats have a long shelf life (if they don’t get gobbled up first). Because the sugar and shortening bind much of the water, there’s little left to supply the needs of pathogens. Other components, like butter and shortening, don’t support the growth of bacteria. Fruitcake, for example, which some folks say will last forever, has a shelf life of at least a year (maybe 3) unopened and a few months opened and refrigerated. The alcohol in it can inhibit the growth of microorganisms, though to what extent depends upon how much alcohol. But beware of mold. When fruitcake goes from cold to warm (e.g. from the fridge to the table), condensation of water on the surface of the cake may encourage mold spores to germinate.
Gingerbread cookies and houses (even if made with graham crackers) are also very shelf stable. Ginger has natural anti-microbial characteristics that inhibit pathogens. However, the fat in it can become rancid. Gingerbread goodies may be safe to eat for a couple of months, but the quality may deteriorate sooner than that.
Cakes with whipped cream and/or fresh fruit require refrigeration, but those with butter cream frosting do not.
Pies: Parties always seem to lead to a shortage of refrigerator space, and, faced with that problem, many hosts and hostesses assume that it’s okay to leave desserts on the table. But be conservative about doing so, especially with pies. Dr. Cutter explains that pies with custard, egg, or whipped cream need refrigeration. Fruit pies can tolerate being out on the buffet longer, but they may become moldy eventually. If not refrigerated, they should be eaten within a week; if refrigerated, they’ll last a few days longer. Pecan pie is pretty stable for about a week. Refrigeration is a good idea to keep quality better and avoid oxidation or rancidity. Room temperature speeds up microbial growth and rancidity; refrigeration lengthens shelf life.
Homemade pies with meringue topping may not survive freezing very well. (Commercial meringue-topped pies withstand freezing because of added stabilizers.)
To reach Q/As on cake and cake mixes, click here: http://shelflifeadvice.com/bakery-goods-and-sweets/bakery-goods/cakes
To reach Q/As on cookies, click here: http://shelflifeadvice.com/bakery-goods-and-sweets/bakery-goods/cookies-and-cookie-dough
To reach Q/As on pies and pastries, click here: http://shelflifeadvice.com/bakery-goods-and-sweets/bakery-goods/pies-and-pastries
Karin E. Allen, Ph.D., Utah State University, Dept. of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences
Timothy J. Bowser, Ph.D. Oklahoma State University, Dept. of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Catherine N. Cutter, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, Dept. of Food Science
Clair L. Hicks, Ph.D. University of Kentucky, Dept. of Animal and Food Sciences
Joe Regenstein, Ph.D. Cornell University, Dept. of Food Science