- Meat and Poultry
- Fish and Shellfish
- Cream and Cream Products
- Eggs and Egg Whites
- Ice Cream
- Dairy Spreads
- Fruit, Fruit Products
- Sauces, Dressing, and Dips
- Condiments, Herbs & Spices, Spreads
- Ingredients for Cooking
- Prepared Foods
- Bakery Goods and Sweets
- Grains, Pasta, and Cereal
- FAQs on Bacteria
- What are bacteria?
- How can I avoid getting sick from a bacterial illness?
- How dangerous is a staph infection?
- Can I assume that if food smells bad its unsafe to eat and if it smells ok that it is safe to eat?
- How dangerous is botulism?
- How dangerous is listeria?
- How many types of bacteria are there?
- What foods are likely to be contaminated by listeria?
- What foods can give a person a staph infection?
- What foods can give a person botulism?
- Why do some bacteria make people sick?
- Why does refrigeration keep bacteria from multiplying?
- Can I avoid all contact with bacteria if I’m careful?
- How Many Bacteria Does It Take to Cause Illness?
- FAQs on Cookware
- Are Ceramic and Enamel Cookware Safe and Practical?
- Are Nonstick Coatings on Cookware a Health Risk?
- Do Cast Iron, Glass, Copper, and Titanium Cookware Have Any Disadvantages?
- Does Using Aluminum Cookware Increase the Chances of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease?
- Is Stainless Steel Cookware a Good Choice?
- Is the New Silicone Rubberized Cookware Safe?
- Nonstick Cookware: Is it Dangerous?
- What Brands of Cookware are Recommended by Experts?
- What Features Should I Look for When Selecting Cookware?
- What Should I Know about Selecting and Using Aluminum Cookware?
- FAQs about Definitions
- Exactly what is meant by the phrase perishable food?
- Defining Some Current Language about Food
- What Does the Word “Foodie” Mean? It Depends Who(m) You Ask
- What do “sell by,” “best by/before,” “use by” and “expiration” mean?
- What does the term shelf life mean?
- What's in Our Food? Maybe Processing Aids, Maybe not
- “Fresh,” “Natural,” “Processed”—What Do These Words Mean?
- FAQs on Dropped Food
- FAQs on Farmers' Markets
- Exactly what defines a farmers’ market?
- Farmers' Markets: Why They're So Popular; How to Find One Near Your Home
- How should I handle produce at home?
- What foods are sold with restrictions at a farmers’ market?
- What should I bring to the farmers’ market?
- What shouldn’t I do or eat at a farmers’ market?
- What signs indicate a sanitary farmers’ market?
- What time of day is it best to go to a farmers’ market?
- FAQs on Food-borne Illness and Mishandling of Food
- About how many cases of food-borne illness occur in the U.S. each year?
- Answer Key to “How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?”
- How Much Do You Know about Safe Handling of Food?
- I Left It Out Too Long! Can I Still Eat It?
- Should Your Grocery Card Track Food-Borne Illnesses?
- Sudden, Awful Intestinal Distress--Is it the Flu or a Foodborne Illness--or Both?
- What YOU Can Do to Avoid Food-borne Illness
- What does the phrase food-borne illness refer to?
- FAQs on Food Product Dating
- Are stores required, by law, to remove outdated items from their shelves?
- Do most consumers actually pay attention to the dating on foods?
- Does the “use by” date matter once the product is frozen?
- Is information on food longevity and safety available by phone?
- What are expiration dates?
- What do the terms closed dating and open dating mean?
- What if there is no date on a product, and I don’t remember if I bought it a month ago or ten years ago?
- What should consumers know about food product dating?
- When Did You Buy It? When Did You Open It?
- When to Throw Food Out? Not on the Use-By Date
- Who establishes these product dates?
- Who requires and regulates dating on foods?
- Why do “best by” and “use by” dates sometimes seem conservative?
- FAQs on Food Safety
- "Is It Safe To….?" FAQs Answered by our Advisory Board
- FAQs about Ground Beef, Seasonings, Olive Oil, Lemon Wedges, and Fish
- FAQs about Mushrooms: Are they Very Dirty or Very Clean?
- FAQs about Soft Cheeses--What's Safe, What Isn't
- FAQs on BPA: the attacks continue, but are they justified?
- FAQs on Food Safety and Nutrition
- FAQs on Raw Fruits and Veggies—the Answers Can Protect Your Wallet and Your Health
- FAQs: Cutting Boards and Kitchen Counters--Selection and Care
- Food Bars/Buffets in Supermarkets--Is the food safe? How can you tell?
- Food/Meat Thermometers—What You Need to Know
- How Long Should Cheese Be Aged? Will the Rules Be Changed?
- How Long Will They REALLY Last? Part I: Non-perishables
- How Long Will They REALLY last? Part II: Perishables
- Imported Foods—What’s Safe, What’s Risky?
- Is It Safe? Is It Nutritious? More Survey Answers from Scientists
- Is It Time to Switch to Pasteurized Eggs?
- Is the Food Safety Modernization Act Making Our Food Supply Safer?
- More FAQs about Minimum Safe Cooking Temperatures: Pork and Other Perishables
- Sushi: Why Such a Short Shelf Life?
- Winter Food Storage—Can I leave It in the Car or in the Garage?
- Would You—Should You—Do You--Eat Irradiated Food?
- FAQs on Food Wrapping
- Are any plastic wraps or containers really “microwave safe”?
- Are some plastic wraps more effective than others?
- Can I refrigerate meat and poultry in its store wrapping?
- Can I use plastic freezer bags to store produce in the fridge?
- Can chemicals leach unto food from plastic wrap or containers?
- Do coated plastic bags really help produce last longer?
- Does aluminum foil give foods a metallic taste?
- Does exposure to aluminum cause Alzheimer’s disease?
- Everything You Need to Know about Wrapping Food Right
- How should fruits be wrapped before refrigeration?
- Is it safe to use aluminum foil in a microwave oven?
- Should I wrap raw vegetables loosely or tightly before refrigerating?
- What are some advantages and disadvantages of aluminum foil?
- What produce needs to be wrapped before refrigerating?
- What’s better for wrapping food—plastic or aluminum foil?
- Why does foil sometimes darken, discolor, and leave black specks on food?
- Will a foil cover help keep foods on the table hot or cold?
- FAQs on Freezing Food
- FAQs on Leftovers
- FAQs on Mold
- What is mold?
- Does mold ever grow on nonperishable food?
- Can I remove a moldy part from food and eat the rest?
- About how many different kinds of molds are there?
- How can I avoid getting mold on my refrigerated food?
- Is mold always visible?
- Are any molds harmless?
- What food groups are most susceptible to mold?
- What kinds of illnesses can result from eating moldy food?
- What kind of packaging protects foods from mold?
- What other safety tips will help prevent mold from growing?
- Why are some molds dangerous?
- FAQs on Organic Food
- What Is Organic Food?
- Are Organic Methods More Humane to Animals?
- Does Conventional Food Have a Longer Shelf Life Than Organic?
- Does Organic Food Taste Better than Conventional Food?
- Is Organic Food More Nutritious Than Conventional Food?
- Is Organically Grown Food Better for the Environment?
- What Do the Various Organic Labels Mean?
- What Important Contributions Has the Organic Movement Made?
- Which Are Safer: Organic or Conventional Food Products?
- Will Organic Baby Food Make Baby Healthier?
- FAQs on Oxidation: How It Affects Foods
- FAQs about Plastic Products Used with Food
- Pyrex® Glassware: Is it safe to use?
- Are plastic bags safe to use in the microwave?
- Are some plastic wraps safer and/or more effective than others?
- Are there any health risks from reusing plastic water bottles by refilling them with tap water?
- Are we eating chemicals from plastics along with our food?
- Can I microwave food in my plastic containers?
- Does the plastic used in water bottles pose a health risk?
- If I heat food in an open can, will that cause the plastic lining to leach chemicals into the food?
- Is it safe to heat frozen entrées in their plastic containers and with their plastic wrap?
- Is it safe to use plastic wrap as a covering when microwaving food?
- Is it safe to wash and dry plastic plates, cups, containers, and utensils in the dishwasher?
- Is there good evidence that BPA is harmful to human health?
- Of the plastic products used to store, heat, or eat with (wraps, bags, containers, silverware, plates, etc.), which contain BPA?
- What is BPA?
- Why is so much of today’s food packaged in plastic?
- FAQs on Preservatives
- What are Preservatives?
- All things considered, is our food supply safer or less safe because of preservatives?
- Are the preservatives in hot dogs and similar products health risks?
- What preservatives are known to cause allergic reactions?
- What are some common preservatives used in food?
- What food groups commonly have preservatives in them?
- Why are preservatives added to food?
- Will the label on the product tell me if it contains a preservative?
- FAQs on Washing Produce: Why and How
- Other FAQs
- Can chicken soup really cure a cold?
- Is Chocolate Good For You?
- Can Science and Technology Help You Save Food Dollars?
- FAQs Answered By Our Board Scientists: on Chickens, Bananas, Old Salad Dressing, and More
- FAQs about Food Price Increases
- FAQs about Products We Use with Food
- FAQs about Shelf Life: Tortillas, Pancakes, Wine, and More
- Food Fraud: Are you paying for scallops and getting shark meat?
- Is Cheese Addictive? Only If You Eat It
- Missing Chickens: Where Have All the Small Ones Gone?
- Nine FAQs about Food Labels
- Quiz Yourself! Check Your Knowledge about Food Temperatures
- Scientists Answer Two FAQs about Egg Safety
- Should Sour Cream and Cottage Cheese Be Stored Upside Down?
- Some Shelf Life Info, General and Specific (Spirits, Defrosted Veggies, Green Tea, and More)
- Syrup from a Tree or from a Lab--Which Should You Pour on Your Pancakes?
- Ten FAQs about the Prickly Pineapple
- What's New in Food? IFT Expo Offers Tasty Innovations
- What's on the Menu in Cuba?
- What’s in My Water? Answers to FAQs
- What will you be dining on this year? Here are predictions from folks in the know
- FAQs on Bacteria
- Books: Food for Thought
- Food Safety
- It Says "Use By Tomorrow," But You Don't Have To
- Ten Tips for Consumer Food Safety
- Food Allergies: Recognizing and Controlling Them
- “Is It Spoiled?” When in Doubt, Check It Out
- How To Keep Your Cooler Cool
- Recent Recalls: Salmonella Threatens 100s of Products
- STOP! Don’t Rinse That Raw Chicken!
- Sous Vide—A Better Way to Cook?
- Why You Need a Safe Cooking Temperature Chart and How to Get One Right Now
- “Myth-information” about Food Safety: You’d Better Not Believe It
- After The Storm: What You Can Save and What You Must Throw Out
- How to Protect Your Food During a Power Outage
- Meet Your Beef--Via Bar Code Info
- Organic Food, GMOs, the Safety of American Food, the Value of Use-By Dates, and More--Scientists Tell Us What They Think
- Raw chicken, Leftovers, Deli Meats, and More-- What Surveyed Scientists Said
- Tips About 4 Popular Beverages: Wine, Coffee, Water, and Soda
- Tips on Reheating for Safe, Yummy Leftovers
- Tips on Water Safety During and After a Storm
- Introducing our Advisory Board Scientists
- Produce: Handling Tips
- Seasonal Tips
- A Novel Method for Cooking a Turkey
- Crock Pot Cooking Tips for that Ideal Winter Dinner
- Cucumbers: for Cool--and "Cool"--Summer Treats
- Going Away for All or Part of the Winter? Prepare Your Kitchen for your Absence
- How To Grill Safely During the Summer
- How do summer squash and winter squash differ?
- New Year’s Resolutions For a Safer Kitchen
- Preserve the Taste of Summer by Canning—But Do It Safely
- Summer Food Fests Offer Much More than Calories
- Summer Party Tips: Baby Carrots (Using for Dips) Hot Dogs (Ditching the Guilt), and Watermelon (Finding a Ripe One)
- Tailgating: How to Do It Right
- Tips on Keeping Your Summer Fruits Flavorful and Healthy
- Shelf Life Tips
- A Food App You're Apt to Like; A Brand-New Invention for Getting Shelf-Life Information
- Battling the Ripening of Bananas
- Food Preservation--Low-tech Past, High-Tech Present and Future
- From Purchase to Storage, Tips on Extending Shelf Life
- Pesto: Ingredients, Uses, Shelf Life, Contamination, and More
- Shelf Life of Foods: What You Need to Know
- Shellfish and Shelf Life Aid from the Canadian Maritime Provinces
- Tips for Carry-along Lunches for Work and School
- Tips for Freezing Food and Freezer Care
- Cooking Frozen Foods
- Freezers And Food Safety
- Freezers And Freezer Burn
- Freezers And Nutrient Retention
- How Often Should You Defrost And Clean Your Freezer?
- How To Defrost And Clean Your Freezer
- How To Defrost Frozen Foods
- How To Freeze Foods: The Quicker The Better
- How To Wrap Foods For The Freezer
- Refreezing Frozen Foods
- What You Can Freeze And What You Can't--Or Shouldn't
- Tips About Genetically Engineered Foods
- Tips for Grocery Shopping
- Tips for Holidays
- Answers to Questions about Thanksgiving Dinner
- Chocolate Is Even More Healthful Than You Thought
- Enjoy St. Patrick’s Day Without Cabbage Stink
- Everything You Need to Know about Cranberry Sauce
- Food-Related Gifts Recommended by Experts (2014)
- Halloween Treats Even Parents Will Love
- Kitchen Gifts that Really Please
- Kitchen Gifts that Really Work
- Our 2016 List of Gifts To Please Every Cook
- Spring Celebrations: What’s on Your Menu?
- Suggestions for Handling Your Child’s “Trick or Treat” Treasures
- Tips for Winter Holiday Meals
- What NOT to Do With Thanksgiving Dinner
- Yikes! The Turkey Is Done, But the Guests Are Delayed! How Do I Keep My Thanksgiving Dinner Warm?
- Tips on Kitchen Equipment
- Tips for Refrigerating Food and Refrigerator Care
- Food Safety Facts
- How To Clean The Refrigerator
- How To Wrap Foods For Refrigeration
- How long can a pie be left unrefrigerated?
- Power Outage? Here’s What to Do with All That Food in the Fridge
- Proper Handling Of Produce In The Crisper(s)
- Proper Refrigeration Placement Of Raw Meat, Chicken, And Fish
- Six Tips for Extending the Shelf Life of Foods
- What Can and Can't Go In The Fridge Door
- Other Tips
- Microwave Cooking
- The 10 Most Dangerous Foods To Consume While Driving
- Are Your Kids Home Alone after School? Educate Them about Snacking
- Clever Inventions That Can Change Eating Habits
- Coffee, Juice, and Food in Central America
- Eggies™ to the Rescue?
- Ever Eaten “Glued” Food?
- Food Definitions: Umami, Locavore, Fruit, Heirloom, and Artisan
- Hot Dogs: What You Should Know about Them
- If You Don't Know Beans about Beans...
- In Defense of Processed Food
- Kids and Cooking: A Good Combo
- New Uses for Old Food: Try 'Em Out!
- Organic Farming and Organic Food: What Are the Benefits?
- Our Board Scientists Talk about 2015 Food Trends
- Portabella Mushrooms and Their Relatives: How to Handle Them
- Ten Exotic Fruits: Novel Treats to Drink and Eat
- Tips on Fishing and on Selecting Healthful Fish
- Tips on Making Food Appealing, Food Safety and BPA (again)
- Tofu: Water Regularly, Consume Promptly
- Want to get some/all of your protein from plants? We'll tell you what's tasty
- What This Site Is All About and How to Navigate It
- What We're Eating This Year: Ancient Grains, Coconut Oil, Kale, and More
- About Us
- In the News
Want to get some/all of your protein from plants? We'll tell you what's tasty
At the Institute of Food Technologists' 2013 convention and food expo, I drank a smoothie laced with powdered chicken. Ancient grains high in protein--for example, amaranth, millet, quinoa, sorghum, and teff --were used in recipes I sampled, as were peanut flours with 40-50% protein. At one of the scientific sessions, this question was discussed: "Will protein be the next big thing?"
The answer turned out to be "yes." In the past few years, food manufacturers have been putting more and more protein (from both animal and plant sources) into processed foods and creating ever-increasing numbers of plant-based alternative products. Let's find out who's buying all this protein and why, what these high-protein plant products are made from, and which ones are delicious. But first, a bit of advice:
DON'T refer to the plant-based burgers, sausages, nuggets, and fish filets you (or your friends) may be eating as "fake" (or "faux") meat. In fact, some fans of these foods will also object to your calling these products "meat substitutes;" or even "meat alternatives." Don't compare their taste and texture to look-alike traditional items. Your Boca burger shouldn't have to trick you into thinking it's a beef burger. All it needs to do is please your palate with its own unique qualities.
DON'T make highly processed plant-protein products the mainstay of your diet, says the University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter. "You're better off getting most of your protein from whole foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains." The Wellness Letter also recommends using foods that are high in protein in your own recipes rather than limiting yourself to manufactured frozen dinners. Registered dietitian Ellie Krieger, in a Chicago Tribune article, recommends eating edamame (shelled soybeans), chick peas, quinoa, sunflower seeds, peanut butter, lentil soup, and hummus as good plant sources of protein. She also recommends the animal protein of eggs, which most vegetarians will eat but vegans won't.
DON'T FORGET to read the ingredients and nutrition labels on packages of plant alternatives. Meat substitutes often contain common food allergens (such as wheat, nuts, soy, and dairy) that some people need to avoid. These products also vary quite a bit in the amount of protein, fat, calories, sodium, and nutrients they contain. You want to know if the calorie or fat content is high or the nutrient levels are low.
WHO'S ON THE LOOK-OUT FOR PLANT-BASED PROTEIN?
Of course, vegetarians and vegans buy these products, but they're not the only ones. Food scientist Dr. Cathy Cutter points out that the niche market for plant protein includes many additional customers, for example, those who just want to cut down on the amount of red meat they consume, observers of "Meatless Mondays," health gurus who want to eat only plant products 2-3 times a week, athletes who believe more protein will help them perform better, and people who live with and/or prepare food for vegetarians or vegans.
Then, there's the category of folks who eat chicken and fish but won't touch red meat or its byproducts. Next are people who, for religious reasons, don't eat meat and dairy at the same meal. If they replace the beef burger with a veggie burger, adding cheese is just fine. (Alternatively, "fake" cheeses can be used on the beef burger.) Athletes who are convinced that more protein will help them perform better may seek out extra protein in beverages such as Boost or in protein-enhanced foods.
WHAT ARE PLANT PROTEIN SUBSTITUTES FOR MEAT MADE OF?
The Berkeley Wellness Letter explains how the following four "meatless meats" are created:
Tofu (soybean curd) is made by curdling soy milk, straining it, and pressing it into blocks.
Tempeh is made by fermenting whole soybeans into a cake form.
Textured soy vegetable protein (called TSP or TVP) is made from defatted soy flour mixed with water.
Seitan (wheat gluten) is a non-soy meat alternative made by removing starch from wheat flour.
Meat alternatives are also made from beans, lentils, rolled oats, brown rice, nuts, sunflower seeds, and vegetables.
WHAT PLANT PRODUCTS HAVE BEEN RECOMMENDED TO SHELF LIFE ADVICE?
Fortunately for this article, my daughter Marcia has 700+ Facebook friends. She posted this question: "What plant foods and products high in protein do you like?" Here are some of their responses and recommendations:
Burgers, meatballs, and crumbles:
Nate's Vegetarian Meatballs
"Beyond Meat and Garden products are winners!"
"Beyond Meat Field Grain and Garden are my favorite faux meats."
"Boca Crumbles work great for tacos."
Morningstar Vegetarian Sausage Patties
Morningstar Farm sausage links
Trader Joe's sausage-less Italian sausages
"Trader Joe's soy chorizo."
"Tofurky products, especially their Italian sausage with pasta sauce"
Morningstar corn dogs
Quinoa products (recommended for vegetarians who can't tolerate soy; good for protein)
Soy puffs ("They're fun and good to throw into soup.!" )
"Don't forget nuts--nothing better than almonds, I think."
Chao and Daiya cheese alternatives (a non-dairy cheese for vegans)
"Mac and cheese made with Cashew Cream and Nutritional yeast is awesome!"
High-protein grains such as kamut and quinoa
"Grilled eggplant is delicious and has a meat-like consistency."
Bananas and spinach (for iron and potassium)
Spectrum Naturals Light Canola Mayo Eggless Vegan
Praise for the Beyond Meat brands is echoed in the Wellness Letter article, which says, "The good news is that the meat substitutes currently available have gotten far better over the years. Some new companies, notably Beyond Meat, deliver plant-based protein that mimics meat exceptionally well--so well, in fact, that even the food journalist and cookbook author Mark Bittman was fooled."
Dr. Cutter prepared a lot of plant-based products during the time that her daughter was a vegetarian. Here's a paraphrase of her comments. The following products were all "pretty acceptable"--alternative meatballs, chicken patties, sausage patties, and corn dogs. If you took a taste test to see if you could identify which product was made with animal meat and which with plant protein, you could probably pick out the "real" meat product. But the "fake" products have a pretty good flavor. Even the crumbles are okay if used in tacos. If masked with cheese and/or condiments, they don't taste bad. Boca burgers are also palatable; they taste pretty good.
BUT, Dr. Cutter sees one big disadvantage to dining on processed plant products: in general, they are much more expensive than the comparable animal products. For about the same price, you'd get a lot more patties or meatballs if you buy "real" meat. If you're cooking for one or two, you might not care, but, if you have a large family and a limited food budget, it would be much more economical to make your own plant-based dishes.
Here's one example of the high cost of plant-based processed items: tofu shirataki, an angel-hair shaped noodle that's a substitute for pasta. The 8 oz. package is supposed to be 2 servings, but (after rinsing it well to avoid the bitter taste I was warned about) I ate almost the entire package. It was good, though more slippery and less firm than "real" pasta. But, of course, you can serve a whole family with a $1 box of real pasta; this package with meager servings for 2 cost a few dollars. Now, I know you're wondering (since real pasta is also a plant-based product) why anyone would buy this tofu shirataki (which is mostly water, soybeans, and yam flour). Well, one serving (half the package) is only 10 calories! Furthermore, it's gluten-free and contains no cholesterol.
As you can see, there are a lot of products and a lot of brands. My one relative who's a genuine, strict vegetarian, Maryellen F., says i: "In terms of processed plant-based foods, it takes some time to get used to the taste and learn about all the various products and how to work with them."
WHAT OTHER PRODUCTS HAS YOUR SHELF LIFE ADVICE EDITOR TRIED?
1) Brad's Raw Crunchy Kale: I'm not a vegetarian, but curiosity got me to buy .It may look like dinner for a bovine, but I actually thought it was tasty (though my daughter didn't and my husband wouldn't even try it). The kale is not just kale. It is flavored with fake cheese and some other seasoning. I enjoyed the flavor and the crunchiness. By the way, t's an organic product.
2) A Quorn product: This brand includes a variety of meatless, soy-free processed foods made with mycoprotein , a fungi (like mushrooms and truffles). We tried the company's chick'n tenders. My daughter and I agreed that the product itself is utterly tasteless, though it does mimic the texture of chicken very well. If tossed into a casserole, it might pass for chicken. One cup of the product has 10 grams of protein.
3) Morning Star sausages: These are quite bland but not bad. My daughter often eats 2or 3 of them for breakfast.
Final comments on taste and choice: The Wellness Letter says, ""The meat substitutes currently available have gotten far better over the years." And the variety is impressive; you can even find pulled "pork," faux "prawns", and "fish" fillets.
DO VEGETARIANS AND VEGANS FEEL DEPRIVED?
None of our Facebook responders said that they missed eating meat. But let them tell you in their own words:
"I've been a vegetarian since about 1990 and never miss eating meat." (Liga S.)
"I'm not a vegetarian but I stopped eating beef in 1996 because it started to make me feel ill. I don't miss eating it, the taste, but the smell of a steak on the outdoor grill gives me a nostalgic longing..." (Nancy N.K.)
"I have never missed not eating animal products." (Peggy B., a vegan for 10 years)
IF ALL PEOPLE BECAME VEGETARIANS, WOULD WE HAVE A HEALTHIER PLANET AND/OR HEALTHIER HUMANS?
Dr. Cutter says, "The jury is still out on the environmental issue. I've seen no research that proves the environmental advantage of the plant-based diet."
The University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter agrees: "Mock meats are not eco-friendly in all ways. Vegetarian meals are generally associated with lower greenhouse gas emissions and less impact on global warming, but according to a 2010 paper in Food Research International, it takes about the same amount of energy to produce a pea-burger as it does a pork chop, calorie for calorie, because of the processing, storing, and other factors involved." Furthermore, the Wellness Letter points out, "Industrial farming has devastated rainforests in Brazil." There are also concerns about possible dangers to human health from the chemical used in the manufacturing of most processed soy products.
The Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter reported on a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine. The study showed that the lowest risk of developing colorectal cancer was not achieved by vegetarians or vegans but by people who were mostly vegetarians but ate fish at least once a month.
University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter, "Fake meat gets real: meat alternatives a getting so good, they're even fooling foodies," December, 2014.
Shelflifeadvice.com "What's New in Food? IFT Expo Offers Tasty Innovations," July 23, 2013.
Chicago Tribune, "Eating less meat? Pick substitutes with care," by Ellie Krieger, June 17, 2015.
ift.org "A New Crop of Plant Protein Pioneers"
Catherine Nettles Cutter, Ph.D. , Pennsylvania State University, Department of Food Science