Is there any risk of illness from eating a piece of store-bought cake or cake made from a mix?

Very litle, though consumers with food allergies should check the labels of cakes and cake mixes to ensure they don't contain ingredients that can trigger an allergic reaction. Potential food allergens include, but are not limited to, dairy products, egg products, gluten, soy, and various nut products. 
Because cakes are essentially dry products, they don't readily attract spoilage bacteria. Cakes are also high in sugar, which also inhibits bacterial growth. However, cakes, like bread, contain sufficient moisture to support mold growth.
Dairy-based icings may promote bacterial growth at room temperature if they don't contain sufficient amounts of sugar. Likewise, fillings made from fresh, uncooked fruit may promote bacterial growth at room temperature. They also may promote mold growth.
Whipped cream icings may grow rancid at room temperature. Rancidity, however, does not cause illness.
Fortunately, proper storage, handling and preparation of cake eliminate most risks of illness.

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